How to Fire Pottery Without a Kiln

Pottery is a beautiful and expressive art form that has been practiced for centuries. While kilns are the traditional method for firing pottery, not everyone has access to one. The good news is that there are alternative methods for firing pottery without a kiln. In this article, we will explore these methods, including Raku firing, home oven firing, and pit firing. We'll also discuss why using a kiln remains a preferred choice for pottery firing.

The Different Ways to Fire Pottery Without a Kiln

Firing pottery without a kiln may seem challenging, but it's entirely possible with the right techniques. Here are three popular methods:

1. Raku Firing

Raku firing is a classic pottery firing method, known for producing beautiful pieces, but it can be a bit tricky and demands a lot of space.

This process starts with a preliminary bisque or biscuit firing. What makes Raku firing distinctive is the need for a generous pit area to create the high temperatures required to finish the pottery. It's a unique technique, admired for its artistic flair and a bit of unpredictability.

How Does Raku Firing Work?

When Raku firing, select an outdoor or well-ventilated area that prioritizes safety, steering clear of flammable materials. Make sure to keep children and animals out of the way. 

  1. Initiate the first firing of your pottery, known as the bisque fire, which precedes the glazing phase.
  2. Most Raku firings make use of a barrel equipped with convenient openings for accessing the pottery post-firing.
  3. Carefully place the pottery inside the barrel, positioning it near the fire source. Gradually heat the pottery. Aim to reach temperatures between 760 to 980 degrees Celsius. This part can be time-consuming, as the barrel effectively serves as the kiln.
  4. Once the pottery attains the desired temperatures, use tongs and safety gloves to remove it. Immediately submerge the hot pottery in cold water or sawdust to expedite cooling.
  5. After cooling, clean the pottery to get rid of any carbon residue from the glaze.
  6. Allow the pottery to dry completely for several hours before you start decorating.

2. Home Oven

This is a handy option for folks just starting or enjoying ceramics as a hobby. A regular kitchen oven is perfect for beginners because it allows you to experiment and learn different techniques without a significant investment in equipment.

However, it's important to remember that kitchen ovens have their limitations. They don't get hot enough for glazing, and their lower temperatures mean you can only work with certain types of clay, like paper clay or salt dough. The final product will turn out somewhat fragile due to the lower firing temperatures.

How to Fire Pottery in a Home Oven

  1. Before placing your clay in the oven, ensure it's properly pre-dried. Leave any damp clay in a dry, warm location for a full day to let it dry completely. The clay should feel dry to the touch to ensure it dries correctly. Avoid putting damp clay in the oven, as it may crack during the firing process, risking your hard work. It's better to wait for thoroughly dry clay to avoid potential damage.
  2. Once your clay is dry, position it at the center of the oven with clear space on all sides, allowing hot air to circulate it. Ensure your pottery sits directly on the oven rack.
  3. Set the oven to 325 degrees Fahrenheit unless specific instructions on your clay packaging suggest otherwise. If your oven can't reach this temperature, use the highest available setting and extend the baking time as needed. For ovens set at 325 degrees Fahrenheit, the clay should remain in the oven for at least thirty minutes.
  4. After firing, allow your pottery to cool for a minimum of four hours. Carefully remove it from the oven and place it on a heat-proof surface until it cools completely. Once cooled, your pottery is ready for use.

3. Pit Firing

Pit firing, also known as smoke firing, is a traditional way of firing clay. It's a great choice for creating pottery that has a natural, unglazed appearance. You can also use it for glazing if that's what you need. Just as the name suggests, this process happens in a pit or hole dug into the ground.

Now, one important thing to remember with pit firing, much like Raku firing, is that you need to do it in a well-ventilated area, away from anything that can catch fire. It's crucial to set it up in a spot where there are no kids or pets around who might accidentally stumble into the pit.

One challenge with pit firing is that it takes more work to maintain a consistent heat level. This can lead to variations in the final piece – it might become more fragile or have uneven glazing.

How Does the Pit Firing Process Work?

  1. Dig a hole in a well-ventilated area, ensuring it's shielded from the wind. Some people use a charcoal grill as their 'pit'.
  2. Use wood chips, coal, or paper to construct a fire in the pit. Ensure that the fire reaches temperatures ranging from 980 to 1100 degrees Celsius.
  3. Once the pit fire achieves the desired temperatures, carefully position the pottery within the heat source. The duration for firing varies, typically lasting between 12 to 24 hours, depending on the finish you aim to achieve, whether it's a natural or glazed look.
  4. When you are content with the pottery's finish and it has hardened, use tongs to carefully remove it from the fire. Alternatively, leave it in the pitfire until the flames have burnt out.

Why You Should Still Use a Kiln for Firing Pottery

While you can fire pottery without a kiln, there are several reasons why we still recommend you use a kiln. For starters, kilns are much safer and are designed to protect you from the high heat generated during intensive firing processes. Kilns also offer other unique advantages that pit firing, home ovens, and raku firing can’t meet.

Controlled Environment

Using kilns offers a highly controlled environment for pottery, primarily through its ability to regulate temperature with precision. Different stages of the firing process necessitate varying kiln temperatures. For instance, the bisque firing stage, which aims to eliminate all water from the clay, requires a lower temperature. Conversely, the glaze firing stage needs a higher temperature to melt the glaze and create a glassy surface.

A kiln also allows for atmosphere control. The balance of oxygen to other gases inside the kiln, known as the atmosphere, can significantly influence the final result. For example, certain glazes can yield vastly different colors in a reduction atmosphere (limited oxygen) compared to an oxidation atmosphere (abundant oxygen).

Finally, kilns ensure even heat distribution and have built-in ventilation systems that expel harmful byproducts like carbon dioxide and volatile organic compounds. After firing, pottery needs to cool down slowly to prevent cracking, and a kiln provides this controlled cooling, especially vital for larger pieces. 

Quality of Finished Product

A kiln significantly enhances the quality of the finished product in several ways. Firstly, the high temperatures reached within a kiln transform soft clay into a hard, stone-like material. This process, known as firing, increases the strength and durability of the pottery, allowing it to withstand wear and tear and last for many years. You can’t reach this level of firing with a home oven or pit firing compared to an at-home kiln

Secondly, kilns ensure even heat distribution throughout their interior. This uniformity of heat is crucial as it ensures that all parts of a pottery piece are fired equally. As a result, the finished pottery has a consistent texture and appearance.

Lastly, modern kilns come equipped with digital control panels that allow potters to program their firing schedules. This feature gives potters the ability to control the rate of temperature increase during different stages of the firing process. By tailoring the firing schedule to the specific needs of each piece, potters can optimize the physical properties and aesthetic qualities of their pottery


Firing pottery without a kiln is a creative and adventurous endeavor, but it requires careful planning and experimentation. Whether you choose Raku firing, home oven firing, or pit firing, each method offers unique results that can add character to your pottery pieces. However, for those who are serious about pottery and seek consistent, professional-quality results, investing in a kiln remains the best choice.

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